Abbreviations, Descriptions and References for Measures

The Table below presents descriptions and references for the evaluation measures employed.

BEHAVE-AD = Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer’s DiseaseReisberg, B., Auer, S. R., & Monteiro, I. M. (1997). Behavioral pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (BEHAVE-AD) rating scale. International Psychogeriatrics, 8(S3), 301-308.
CMAI = Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory

Cohen-Mansfield, J., Marx, M., & Rosenthal, A. (1989). A description of agitation in a nursing home. Journals of Gerontology, 44(3), M77-M84. Retrieved from PsycINFO database.

Cohen-Mansfield, J., & Billig, N. (1986). Agitated behaviors in the elderly I. A conceptual review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 34, 711-721.

Cohen-Mansfield, J. (1986). Agitated behaviors in the elderly II. Preliminary results in the cognitively deteriorated. Journal of the American Gerontological Society, 34, 722-727.

Finkel, S.I., Lyons, J.S., & Anderson, R.L. (1992). Reliability and validity of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory in institutionalized elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 7, 487-490.

DEMQOL = Dementia Quality of Life

Smith, S. C., Lamping, D. L., Banerjee, S., Harwood, R., Foley, B., Smith, P., … & Knapp, M. (2005). Measurement of health-related quality of life for people with dementia: development of a new instrument (DEMQOL) and an evaluation of current methodology. Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England), 9(10), 1-93.

Smith, S. C., Lamping, D. L., Banerjee, S., Harwood, R. H., Foley, B., Smith, P., … & Knapp, M. (2007). Development of a new measure of health-related quality of life for people with dementia: DEMQOL. Psychological medicine, 37(05), 737-746.

GDS = Geriatric Depression Scale

Sheikh, J.I., & Yesavage, J.A. (1986). Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): Recent evidence and development of a shorter version. In T.L. Brink (Ed.), Clinical Gerontologist: A Guide to Assessment and Intervention (pp. 165-173). NY: The Haworth Press.

Yesavage, J.A., Brink, T.L., Rose, T.L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., & Leirer, V.O. (1982- 1983). Development and validation of a Geriatric Depression Screening Scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17(1), 37-49.

MDS = Minimum Data Set

Burrows, A. B., Morris, J. N., Simon, S. E., Hirdes, J. P., & Phillips, C. H. A. R. L. E. S. (2000). Development of a minimum data set-based depression rating scale for use in nursing homes. Age and ageing, 29(2), 165-172.

Hartmaier, S. L., Sloane, P. D., Guess, H. A., Koch, G. G., Mitchell, C. M., & Phillips, C. D. (1995). Validation of the minimum data set cognitive performance scale: agreement with the mini-mental state examination. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences,50(2), M128-M133.

Hawes, C., Morris, J. N., Phillips, C. D., Mor, V., Fries, B. E., & Nonemaker, S. (1995). Reliability estimates for the Minimum Data Set for nursing home resident assessment and care screening (MDS). The Gerontologist, 35(2), 172-178.

MMSE = Mini Mental State ExamFolstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of psychiatric research, 12(3), 189-198.
MOSES = Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly SubjectsHelmes, E. (1987). Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects (MOSES). Psychopharmacology bulletin, 24(4), 733-745.
MPES = Menorah Park Engagement ScaleCamp, C.J., Skrajner, M.S., & Gorzelle (2015). Engagement in dementia. In Volicer, L, & Hurley, A (Eds.), Assessment Scales for Advanced Dementia (71-78). Baltimore, Maryland: Health Professions Press.
NPI = Neuropsychiatric Index – Nursing Home

Cummings, J. L. (1997). The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Assessing psychopathology in dementia patients. Neurology, 48(5 Suppl 6), 10S-16S.

Wood, S., Cummings, J. L., Hsu, M. A., Barclay, T., Wheatley, M. V., Yarema, K. T., & Schnelle, J. F. (2001). The use of the neuropsychiatric inventory in nursing home residents: characterization and measurement. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8(1), 75-83.

Zeisel Stigma ScaleA grant proposal was submitted to the National Institute on Aging to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Zeisel Stigma Scale.